Deliverable D1.2: Description of the reference and the control-oriented wind farm models

The objective of this deliverable was to present, in a complete and mathematical manner, the various wind farm models used and extended within the CL-Windcon project. On a lower-fidelity scale, this includes control-oriented surrogate models, which are lightweight and can be used in real time to optimize the operation inside the farm. Among others, a collaborative effort was made towards a steady-state surrogate model called “FLORIS”, which is short for the “FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady-state” model. This model is being tested through high-fidelity simulation, scaled experiments in the wind tunnel in Milan, and field experiments in a small wind farm in Italy. On the other hand, the higher-fidelity models offer a high spatial and temporal resolution to resolve the different scales of turbulent structures in the flow and turbine dynamics. The high-fidelity model used in CL-Windcon is SOWFA. Finally, the deliverable also includes medium- and multi-fidelity models (like FAST.Farm, SimWindFarm, LongSim, WindFarmSimulator,…), which attempt to bridge the gap between low-fidelity surrogate models and high-fidelity simulation models. This deliverable resulted in a clear overview of the state-of-the-art models that are being used within the project.

As particular outputs from the deliverable, it can be highlighted the implementation of large wind turbines (10MW) in the high-fidelity simulation environment “SOWFA”. A number of wind farm topologies, inflow conditions and surface conditions are specified to cover an appropriate range of wind farm operation in simulations. Another important output from this deliverable has led to an open-source software implementation of the surrogate wind farm model “FLORIS”, available on Github, with the aim of becoming community-driven.

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